The National Archives (PRO) CO 194/6: 226-241v [NAC MG 11, Microfilm copy, Reel B-208] N.B. Black numbers in square brackets signify changes in pagination; blue numbers in square brackets signify endnotes.

Copy of Captain Taverner's Second Report relating to Newfoundland

Rec'd 25th May}
Read 27 Do } 1718

f. 226

May it please your Lordsp

Pursuant to her late Majtys Instructions to me of the 21st and 22d of July 1713, I sent your Lordsp a memorial of my proceedings, Dated Placentia Octobr 10th which I presume came to your honr in due Time wherein I advisd of the Dischargeing the Tyger Gally with my reasons thereon. The measures I had taken for prosecuting the Survey the winter with severall other things in the said Memorial containd, whereunto I humbly refferr.

Accordingly on the 24th of the same Month the Vessell calld the Delore, under the command of Mr. Robt. Duffett saild from placentia with our provisss, and Necessarys, which I ordered to goe to Burein, it being the most Commodious place for our Rendavous the Winter, and finding a Shallop was absolutely Necessary for the Surveying of a great many Places, bought one, Victuald, and Mannd her with Two Men out of The Delore, the Canadean, and one which I hired for the aforesaid Service, in order to goe round the bottom of the Great Bay, of Chapeauxrouge [1],  the charges of the Survey the Winter, are hereunto annex'd.

From Cape St. Marys to Great Placentia is no harbour, neither for Ships or boats. The ffrench Biscayers frequently built Stages, near the Cape of St. Mary's agt. the Cliffs to Salt their fish in, it being an Extraordinary good place for takeing ffish, the Salted ffish they carry to Placentia in small Shalloways, where they dry it on the beech, at Point Verte [2] are 6 ffishing Stages, good large beech for [226v] Drying ffish and abt Twenty houses.

Great Placentia is a very good harbour, but the tide runns very strong, there are about Thirty Stages, 100 houses and one Church, There is the finest beech as ever I saw for Drying Codfish, large enough for 500 Boats, to cure their ffish on. The ffrench have loaded with ffish in that harbr four Score Saile of Ships, in a Season, many of them, carrying from four to Six Thousand Quintalls, of ffish.

I parted in the Shallop from Great placentia on the 26th: arrivd at Little placentia [3] about noone, where [I] took the bearings and Distances, of Severall places yt Harbr lyes in about S:W: One League, there is beech enough for 70 or 80. Boats. Low Land on the W. side but high on the East Side. It's a good place for Keeping Cattle, very good for Drying ffish, The ffrench have generaly made good Voyages there, At this Time are Three ffrench Inhabits which took the Oaths to her late Majty, there are about 12 or 14 stages. and 30 houses, left by the ffrench, that went to Cape Britton which none makes use of at present, There are alsoe Two Churches. Wind coming NoE. and abundance of Snow was oblidged to tarry there Two dayes.

29th Wind at Wt: fair weather, went up the Bay takeing the Bearings, and Distances, from Little Placentia to Famish Gutt [4]. The Islands and Rocks are Dangerous for Shipping as appears by my Chart, Long Harbour [5] is good for Ships. The Coast on the Maine is very good for Deer, [6], and [227] the Islands afford abundance of ffowle, in the Summer and Seale in the Winter, I presume those Islands afford good ffishing in the Season, because the Inhabitants of Little placentia advisd me that Fox Island was exceeding good for Codfishing, in Time of Capling [7]which is a small ffish, the Codd feed on, and generally come in with the Shore, to cast their Rowes, on the Sands about the 20th of June.

30th Wind at W:S:W: fresh Gales, went to Little Sutte Harbour [8] between those Two places is no harbour, for Ships. Along the Coast, is good hunting for Deer, and ffoxes, at the proper Seasons of the Year, there is neither Good Woodes, nor anything Else, to render it Acceptable, Little Sute harbour which is either good for Ships, or boats, I was oblidgd to Tarry there till the 5th of Novembr by reason of bad Weather.

7th Went to Great Sute harbour which is a place fitt for Boats only, there is no good Woodes in it, nor any sort of ffishing. The ffrench accot it a good place, for Foxes, & Deer, Then returnd back to Little Sute harbour, to take in our provissions, and Tent, which we had left there.

9th Fair Wind and good Weather, we saild for the bay of Carinole, which the English call Come by Chance, at the Bottom of this Bay, the French in the Late Warr, did frequently haul goods over Land, to Bay of Bulls, in Trinity Bay, with which boats they plundred the English, at Hearts Content, New Perlican, Scily Cove, Hans Harbour, Old Perlican, Trinity, Bonavista, and severall other places, it's about Two Miles over, what plunder they gott of the English they often carried it over Land, from Bay of Bulls [9], to come by [227v] Chance, and from thence in their boats to Placentia.

This Bay affords, nothing except Seale, and Grass for Cattle, from thence went to North Harbour [10], which is good for Ships, or boats, it's alsoe very good for Seale, Otter, ffoxes, Beaver, and Deer.

10th Entred the Bay de Largent, [11] which is about 3 Leag.s. Deep, Commodious for Ships, and Boats, It affords very good Woodes, for building Stages, houses, &ca and large trees, fitt for Board, or Plank, of which the ffrench from Placentia, did Sawe Great Quantitys, it's alsoe good for Seales, Beaver, Fox, Otter, &ca. There is Two Rivers empty Themselves into it, Tolerably good, for Salmon.

I was obligd to Tarry there untill the 23d, by reas. of the Contrary Winds, and Snowy Weather, the Cold was soe Strong, that we could not goe abroad in our boat, above Two or Three Times, The harbour being filld with Ice, we found an Old house in the woodes [12], which did us a great deal of Service, in defending us from the Cold, & Snow.

24th Wind at North, very cold but clear weather, took my Departure, Survey'd all the Coast, between that and Merishon harbour [13] where we arrived the 26th in the Eveng. There is nothing remarkable between those Two places, on the Main, but Harbour Mullon [14], which is famous for Hares and Patridge, the Island of Merishon is very good for all sort of Game, Especialy Deer, Isle Long [15], is alsoe Stored with Deer, Otter, ffox, Seale, &ca the ffrench report that in the Month of Octobr on Isle Rouge [16], their hunters have frequently Kild a 100 Patridge [sic] for a Man a Day.

[228]

The harbour of Merishon, is very good for Ships to ride in alsoe for Codfishing, It looks bad at a Distance, there is no Danger but what I have markt in my Chart. In that harbour lives one ffrench Inhabitant, which hath taken the Oath. The harbour of Prest [17] over against it, on the Maine is good, for Ships, but not For Fishing The ffrench informd me, that on the Island of Prest [18] there are the Largest Deer that ever were seen in Newfoundland

27th Went from Merishon harbour, the Wind at N.oE.t to Cummins harbour, which is a small harbour, full of Rocks at the Entrance, but Commodious enough, when the Ships are in [19], The passage into this harbour, is between Cumins' [sic] Island, and Black Island, on Cummin's Island, is a good Beech, where one Ship Generaly fishes, In the harbour, are Six Stages wch formerly belong'd to French Inhabitants, but now all Deserted, there are severall good houses, and I presume, Beech enough for 40 Boats, The ffrench report it, to have been formerly a very good harbour for Codfishing, and is the best place in Newfoundland, for Herrings, I have been Inform'd that Mr. Archibald Cummins Mercht, bought one of the plantations there.[20]

Cummins Bay is very good for Furrs, & Salmon. there are some large Trees fitt for board, or plank, we went from thence, to Isle Ogeron, where lives one Madam La Force a French woman whose husband has left her [21], She has a very fine plantation Beech enough for 20 Boats. A Strong Fort, built on a little Island, all their houses Surrounded [228v] with Pallisadoes, she has a good Stock of Sheep, and Goats. In her Garden was the Largest, and heavyest Ears of Wheate, that ever I saw in my Life, very good Rye, and all sortes of Rootes, Cabbages &ca in abundance, At the South west end of this Isle is a good harbour for Ships, and on the S.o Point a Large Beech for drying ffish, this Island is good for Codfishing, Especially in Time of Capling [22], on it fished a Ship from St Sebastians [23], the last Season.

In the Island of Juda [24], is no harbour, nor place for Drying ffish, but a good place for takeing it, the fishers of Ogeron, generaly come to Cape Juda, to take their ffish from Cape Juda, to the Westward as farr as harbour Rouge [25], is very Dangerous, and not posible for any Ship to enter that way, as may be seen by my Chart.

The Islands of platt [26], are good only for fowles, in the Summer Season, the ffrench gett Quantitys of Eggs from them, on the Maine is nothing Material between Cummins's Bay, and Havre Rouge, but Havre de Loup [27], where there is Salmon ffishing, I tarried at Ogeron, Surveying Cape Juda with the adjacent Harbours, Islands and Rocks, untill the 2d of Decembr in which Time there prov'd a great Storme, which discover'd the Sunken Rocks [28], and Broken Ground as Mark'd in my Chart.

Dec. 3d Went from Ogeron to Harbour Rouge, on the 4th was a great Storme of Wind, and Snow, untill the 7th. having nothing but a Tent to cover us, we suffred very much, that harbour has Two Rivers which falls into it.

[229]

In those Rivers, Boats may be Secure, both Rivers are good for Salmon, The Countrey is very remarkable for Hares. The ffrench Informd me, that some Times in ffogy Weather, a hunter will kill in a day, 12 or 14, Its good for Deer.

8th In the morning we went to Havre John Dubois [29], where entring it the Sea broke into us, wett all our Cloathes, and spoild most of our provissions, it was very cold, soe that we were soon in a Cake of Ice; being in this Condition, and the Sea very high upon the Coast, the wind blowing hard at N:Wt I thought it the best way to goe for Boaboa [30]; where was some ffrench Inhabs that we might reffresh ourselves but Rock Harbour [31] lyeing between Boaboa and us, being soe very Dangerous as Represented by the ffrench, and not Knowing Exactly, where the Danger lay, it being almost night, made me affraid to Venture, however our Condition being soe Miserable, we must either run the risque or be ffrozen to Death, with Cold under those Considerats we sett saile, the Rocks of Rock Harbour, broke Intolerably and about 8 at Night, we arrivd at Boaboa, where the people were very kind to us, we refreshd ourselves pretty well by the morning.

Boaboa is a very good place for ffishing, but little Beech for Drying ffish One Laremberg a Bayooner which took the Oath [32], kept 4 Boats there the last Season, caught for his 4 Boats 1000 Quintls of ffish. Between Havre Rouge, and Boaboa, is no harbour, for Ships, or place for any sort Fishing, except Grand Marteer [33], which is good for [229v] Salmon and herrings. There is alsoe in that bay, abundance of large Timber, ffitt for planks, or Deales, in the Countrey is Beavers, Otter, Martins, Foxes, and Deer.

10th The wind at No fair weather proceeded to Petit Marteer [34], which is a harbour, that Two ffrench Ships Commonly used to ffish. Roome enough for about 20 boats, and good Woods, good for fishing.

11th Went to Port Ooray [35] which is a good place for Ships, there is one ffrench planters roome, its accounted a good place for Codfishing.

From thence went to Little Burein [36], where is a very fine Beech for 8 Boats, which the ffrench Ships frequently fishd on and made good Voyages, Thence to Great Burein where we arrivd the 12th: found the Delore, which I orderd from Placentia, there was a ffrench plantation, in that Harbour left by the Owner, which refus'd to take the Oath, Robt Duffett and the people with him, took possession of it, being very usefull for us, in preserveing our proviss.s, and defending us from the Cold, and Snow, which began to be very Violent by that Time, I was then well pleasd to think that we had a house to live in, and hoped that we might have some Comfort of our Lives there, having had but very little in our Voyage round the Bay, for we always lay under a Tent and in Snowy weather, Oblidg'd to lay abed day and night, some Times, 2 or 3 Days Succesively, but when I came to discourse Robert Duffett he told me that at his arrivall there he Landed our proviss.s in the ffishing Stage and that some [230] Time after they had, a great Storme of Wind, and Snow, which made a high Tide, that the Sea came up in the Stage, and Damnyfy'd Two Butts of bread, that the Vessell was Damag'd and like to have been lost, That Mr. St. Martin a ffrench Gentleman, in a bark from Great placentia, bound to Cape Britton, loaded with provisss. &ca. about 40 Men on board, was drove ashoar in that harbour, his Vessell beat in peices, most of his Provisss. and other Goods lost, which News made me very Uneasy, fearing that Mr. St. Martin, and his Men might come and robb us, of our provisss. By this Time the weather was growne soe prodigous Cold, that we could not keep our Shallop in the Water, for the Ice, and Snow, but were oblig'd to haul her up, where left her, we Secur'd our provisss. in the planters Dwelling house, as well as we could. The small Boat which belong'd to the Delore, was lost in the Storm soe that we had no small boat, to goe along the Coast, to kill Wild Fowle. The Delore we hauld into a Creek, after we had put things in the best order we could. The Men went into the woods to Saw Boards, with which was built, a Small boat to goe along the Coaste, about the 20th: of January, got her ready to Launch after which built another boat, for the publick Service, as props'd in my Memorial from Placentia, the weather continoing very cold, could not finish that boat, before the first of March.

Mar:3 Launchd her, put in Provisss. and Necesarys, into her for my Voyage, to the Bay of Fortune, takeing with me Six Men, the rest left at Burein, to take care of the Vessell [230v] and Goods. Great Burein, is an Excellt place for Codfish. There is beeche enough for Ten Boats, may make Stages for Ten more, and good for Ships to ride in, The Bay of Burein is Commodious for Ships, there is Indiferent Good Timber, Falls Three great Rivers into it, Two of them are Tolerably good for Salmon ffishing, Foxes, or Otters, plenty, but no Codfish, from thence went to Corbein [37] where lives Two Inhabitants, which have taken the Oath, It's a good place for Ships to ride in. There is an Island in the bottom of it, which ffrench Ships did Generally ffish on, there's but ffew Salmon to be caught in this place, but a very good place for Codfishing, the Inhabs made near 300 Quintls. for a boat the last Season, thence I went to Little St. Lawrence [38] which is a good harbour; and good for Codfishing, but no Salmon, there is very little woods in those parts, A man may goe 30 or 40 Miles in the Countrey, upon the plains, and scarse find a Tree to Shelter him, abundance of Hares, Patridge, and Deer, but the Countrey being so plaine the hunters cannot come at the Deer very often, There ffishes one planter, who hath not taken the Oath, he caught the last year about 280 Quintls of ffish p boat, there are Two ffishg Roomes. for Ships, which is all fflakes. from thence I went to great St. Lawrence [39], which is a harbour, that exceeds all the rest for Ships, there are Two very fine beeches large enough for 20 Boats, which lyes on the West side, and on the East side, there is roome enough for 40 boats, in that harbr [231] Turn in or out, when they please, and Ships may be [landd?] [40] aground, within the high Mountain, called Chapeauxrouge is all Barren Levell Land, its esteemd by the ffrench, to be an extraordinary good place, for Codfishing, in Time of the Late Warr [41] they have had 300 Boats, from Placentia, I have been credibly Informd that they did this Successively, one Year after another, the whole Time of the Warr.

From thence to Great Laun, there's no harbour, between those Two places, nor anything worth remarking, except Chambre, which is the best place in Newfoundland, for Capling, at that place the ffrench ffishers, came every day from St. Lawrence to fetch Capling for bait, to take their Codd.[42]

Great Laune is good for hunting, Deer, Otter and ffox, which are very plenty, there falls Two Rivers into it, at the Mouth of which, are abundance of Salmon, The ffrench Seldom made use of that harbour, for fishing Cod.

I went from that harbour to Lamoline [43], where I arrivd the 9th. That harbour is very fowle, no Ship can enter without a Pilot, the Land is very Low and Barren, about this place – it's good for Little, there's beech enough for Twenty Boats French Ships have sometimes fished on it, but not of late Years. In and about this harbour is little Wood, the Wind comeg at E.N:Et. abundance of Snow falling made us very Miserable in our Tent, which obligd us to build a small house, with some Timber on the Shoar, which did us a great Deal of Service, the Weather continued very bad, the whole Time of [231v] our Stay.

[March] 15th Wind at S:E fair weather left Lamoline, went to Point Mayo, Beech, Fortune, Grand Bank &ca. [44] Point Mayo is not worth Noteing. Beech is a very wild place but good for Codfishing there formerly lived one planter which has left his plantatn and gone to Cape Britton, he Inform'd me that they generaly made 300 Qlls of ffish for a boat, and that in the winter Season he kild from 800 to 1000 Patridge.

Fortune is a Tide Harbour, fitt for boats only, a very good place for fishing, The Inhabitants last year, kept Ten Boats, not one Englishman in the place.

Grand Bank at present hath no Inhabitants, there are 6 Stages. a great many good houses, very good Beech accounted by the ffrench. A good place for fishg and the best for Drying ffish on that Coast, because the ffoggs are not so common, in that harbour as in other places, it's a Tide harbour fitt for Boats only, went no further up the Bay of Fortune, because had been in all the Harbours round the Bottom of that Bay, in the Time of the Warr[45], searching after ffrench Ships, at which Time I took the bearings, and Distances, of all those harbours, as farr as Havre John Bretton, the Prisoners I had on board at that Time, Inform'd me, what those places produced, viz. That Harbour affords a few Salmon and some hunting in the Winter.[46]

[232]

Spout Cove, and East Bay, is Tolerably good for Salmon, between this and Crab Harbour is good Deer hunting, and good Timber for Stages, it's alsoe good for ffurring.[47]

English harbour has Two rivers, which are tolerably good for Salmon, and good Timber for Stages. The ffrench take furr here the Winter.[48]

Bay de Noor, is the best place in all those Bays, for Deer, and Seale, The ffrench Yearly took a great many in that Bay, the hunters told me, that in the Bottom of it, the Countrey is so plaine, that it's like a Corne ffeild or Meadow In traveling 20 Miles it's hard to find Shelter to Keep a Man from the sight of a Deer, that in those places are abundance of Deer, and Hares, between this Bay and Long Harbour, is all Barren Land, in the bottom of Long Harbour, is good Woods, Bay de Bois is very good for large Timber, fitt for board, or plank, from that place to Bandalore, the Countrey is all barren, and full of Hills, at Bandalore, is a large Beech, and severall houses wch belong to Monsr. Belorm, a Malouin Gentleman, who hath winterd, in that place 20 Years, Succesively one after the other.[49] I took from him at that place in the Time of the late Warr, the Value of Three Thousand pounds[50], he took the Oath according to the Treaty of peace, keeps his ffishery the Summer at St. Peters, because there is no Codfishing at Bandalore, nor St. Jacques, but in the Mos. of Septembr, October, and Novembr, and at that Time, no great Quantity.

From that place to Duck Bay, barron ragged Country, Duck Bay[51] is good for Timber, & hunting, [232v] in the Seasons, are many Salmon, Harbour Breton is very Ragged Mountainous Land, in that harbour is a good Beech, a planters house, and Stage. The ffrench report yt about Twenty Years since they used to ffish there, in the Months of ffebruary, March, and Aprill, in which time they would take a 100 Quintls of ffish p boat but in the Time of the Warr left it.[52]

The Bay of Capnegro, is very good for hunting and ffurring, large Timber for Sawing, and for Stages, as alsoe for Salmon.[53]

Cape Negro[54] is a Tide harbour for boats, there are Three Plantations, very good beech large enough for 15 or 16 Boats, 2 Corn ffeilds in which growes very good Barley, as ever I saw. The Inhabitants took the Oath, and are since gone to Cape Britton, It's a good place for Codfishing, between this and Isle Grole is barren Land full of Rocks.

Grand Lance, is a good beech, where ffrench Ships have often fished, may keep 8 or 10 Boats, generally good fishing, at that Place.[55]

Isle Espere[56] is alsoe good for fishing, but no beech for Drying it, nor any Woodes for makeing fflakes. A french planter there, dry'd his fish on the Rocks.

At Isle Grole, is one plantation, and a beech for 5 or 6 boats. The ffishers at Isle's Grole et Espere, take their fish, from a 100, to 150 ffathom Water, round this bay of Hermitage Close to the Shoar, 50 ffathom Water [57]. [233] and in the Middle 200 hundred ffathom Capling, Codfish and herring, are in this Bay all the Winter, for in the Mos. of March, and Aprill, the ffrench use to ffish Cod at Isle Grole, and take in those Months, Considerable Quantitys, the harbour of Hermitage is very good for Ships, because the Watter is not soe Deep, as in other places and alsoe good for Codfishing, severall ffrench Ships, and one planter, used to ffish there. It afords beech and fflakes, enough for about Twenty boats, from Isle Espere to the bottom of this Bay, on the South side, is very high Land, except at Isle Grole and the harbour of Hermitage, at the bottom of the bay of Hermitage, is abundance of Timber, Seales, & ffurrs, Isle Long is good for Deer, the ffrench generally hunt there, but no fishing about that Island.[58]

Shoal Bay, Bay de North East, Bay du Bois, and Bay de Glass, are the famous't places in Newfoundland for Timber of all sortes[59], as to it's bigness and Length, in those Bays can Saw great Quantitys of Plank, & Deales, many of them 3 foot broad, and to 60 or 70 foot long, there are abundance of Spruce Masts, some large enough for lower Masts, to Ships of 300 Tunns, The Sortes of Timber are Firr, Spruce, Pine, and Wychhazell, the same as in other places, but Exceeds them all for Length and Bigness, those great woodes goes a great way in the Countrey, there are abundance of Seales, in those Bays[60]. [233v] the ffrench Kill what they please in the Winter, French Boats from Cape Britton, are at this Time wintering in those Bays to kill Seale, and Furrs.

Harbour Deep is very good for hunting, and Furring in the Winter[61], the ffrench inhabitants often winterd in that place, and had taken Considerable Quantitys of Codd, Salted it, and in the Spring carried it to St. Peters, and Dry'd it, there is a great Tide running out, in this harbour, the Land high of both sides, at the Entrance the Water's very Deep: soe that it is Difficult for Ships to goe in, from that harbour to Cape Lahune is high Land, full of Barron Mountains. The Tops of those Mountarins are bare rocks, the ffrench say there is abundance of Deer, and Wolves, frequent those hills, Particularly in the Mos. of March and Aprill, the Water is very Deep, all along the Coast, close to the Shoar, The ffrench have sometimes fishd at Harbour Rancounter[62], but not often, because there is no good place for Drying fish.

The Penoguine Islands, are in the Summer time coverd with fowle, of that Name[63], they are as large as any Tame Goose; their Wings are soe small that they can never fly, they get their food by Diveing in the Sea, In the mo of June, they come to those Islands, which are flat on which they lay their Eggs., the french from Placentia did yearly goe to those Islands, & load [234] Boats of 20 Tunns with their Eggs, which they sold at placentia they told me that a Mann, could not goe ashoar upon those islands, without Bootes, for otherwise they would spoile his Leggs, that they were Intirely covred with those fowles, soe close that a Mann could not put his foot between them, I took the bearings, and Distances, of those Islands, and Rocks, from Cape Lahune, but never was on them my self, this is as farr as I surveyd, to the Wt.ward, I now come to the Islands of Maynelon,[64]

The Bay of Maynelon, affords a very good beeche for 400 boats, and Timber enough for building of Stages, the bay is Tolerably good for Ships to ride, in being clear ground, no Sea to hurt them, but what comes out of the Bay of Fortune; 14 Saile of ffrench Ships, have fishd in this place at Once, The ffrench accounted it one of their best fishing places, the last winter a great Storme, broke out the beech on the So. side of this Bay, into a large ffresh water pond, which ever since hath kept open, by a Strong Tide, running there with the Ebb, and flood, so that at present, a Ship of 70 Tunns, may goe in Load into the Pond, and lye safe at all Times[65], should this new harbour Continue soe, it will be of great use, to Ships wch fish there, hereafter, in that Bay is abundance of pasture for Cattle and many Acres of Land, which plowd up would Yeild good corn, there is alsoe on the same Island, lying to the South of the Bay of Myelon a large Bay, which I have named in my Chart the Bay of Dun[66], on the North [234v] side of it is a Tide harbour for boats and Small Sloops. there's abundance of Seales, and severall 100 Acres of good pasture Land, round it, where the Grass growes from Two to Three foot high, there is no trees or stones between this harbour, and the South of the Bay of Dunn till you come to Anglois[67]; the Soile is black earth, Intermixd with Sand, there are severall Sand hills in this bay. I went to the harbour of Dunn, in the Month of June last digd up some of the ground, sowd in it Peese, Oates, Carrots and Turnops. in the Month of Septembr. I sent a boat to see what Crop I had, they brought very good Carrotts, Peese, Oates, and Turnips, as large as a Mans head, the Sweetest that ever I tasted, this is the only place I saw in Newfoundland fitt for keeping a large Stock of Cattle, or for Manuring, that Bay and harbour, affords no sort of fishing.

Anglois is high Land, on the No. Woods, but all other parts barren.[68]

In my humble Opinion St. Peters exceeds all the rest for Codfishing, it's a good harbour, and beech might be made for 300 Boats. That the Land would be farr better was bank Verte Surveyd.[69]

I now return to ffortune where the 9th: Wind at No.No. East in the morning left that place[70], in the Evening arrivd at Point Mayo, where was oblidgd, to lye that night the next day went to Lamelin, tarried there till the 26th the Wind being fair, left Lamelin arrivd at Burein the 28th.

[March] 29th Went all to work to clear the Delore out of the Ice and grave her[71], which we accomplishd and got her ready to [235] Saile by the 9th of Aprill, loaded on board her what provisss and Necessarys, we had left of our Winter Stock, designing for St. Peters and from thence to the Westward [72] accordingly I ordered Robert Duffet, and five Men more, with one Mountaine a ffrench pillot to saile the first fair wind, designeing myself to goe along the Coast, in the boat which I got built, for the publick Service, to take some bearings and Distances of some Rocks, and Shoals, which lay between Burein and St. Peters, the 10th: Wind being N:W:t not fair for the Delore to saile, Departed from Burein for St. Peters in the boat because in her we could row along the Shoar, but in my Pasage the Wind blowing very hard at N:W: stopd at a place calld Chambre were went ashoar, and ordered the Men to take care of the boat, I went about half a Mile from them tarrying about Two houres, to View the Countrey with a french plantor, that were goeing to St. Peters with me, while we were absent, the people which kept the boat being Negligent, suffered her to come in amongst the Rocks where the Sea fild her, washt out, and lost, the Ruther, Sails Masts Grapling, all mine and Mens Cloaths, an Azimuth Compass all our Victuals, Liquors, and every thing that was in the boat except Three Oars[73], when I came to the Boat seing her in this Condition, I was exceedingly Surprizd, gott a Rope and hauld the boat of the Rocks, baild the Water out of her, by Providence no part of her was broken under Water, but in many places above the Watter, it was very cold, and Froze prodigously we were all wett in getting of the boat, haveing nothing to make a fire ashoar, no Cloaths, Bedding, Victuals, or Liquor [235v] but 3 Oars to Row with, the Wind continuing to Blow very hard, being almost Night and Near Three Leagues to Little St. Laurance where livd a planter, these Circumstances were very hard, tho rather I thought it Impossible for us to Row there against such a Gale of wind, which blew Directly out of that harbour[74], at last resolved to push for it, which we did the Wind abateing, we gott to the planter's house by 10 a'clock that night, the planter, was very kind giveing us the Liberty of his house, to dry our Cloaths and Warm our selves, and alsoe Supplyd us with Masts Sails Oars, and provissions, to carry us to Saint peters. one of our Men named William Ryall had his foot burnt with the Cold, after Three Days Tarryance, we proceeded to St. Peters but meeting, with Contrary winds put into the harbour of Lamelin, after 4 Days Tarryance there went for St. Peters, at my arrivall heard the bad news of the Delores being lost, and all the provisss. &ca. in her, and nothing saved but the small boat, and men this news was very afecting to me, not knowing what Course to take, no Ships then arrivd, not above 4 or 5 ffrench men, which winterd on the Island, they could not Supply me with any except 2 lb. of bread, which was very little to maintain 14 men withall, Considering had nothing else, I at last prevaild with them, to lend me some Powder and Shott, soe I went a Gunning every Day, in the little boat, they had saved belonging to the Delore, haveing good Success, killd as many fowle, and Seale as maintaind our [--> 236] People Tolerably well for near Three Weeks, when Capt Tuper of Guernsey, arriv'd of whom I gott a little Supply of proviss, being left in such a Condition, by those Misfortunes, I thought it not adviseable, to enter into any further Engagemts, on the Accot. of the publick, for Continuing of the Survey without Orders, and at the same Time, I had reason to expect that the Govrnment would order me a Sloop for the Service as propos'd in my Memoriall from Placentia. soe I resolved to Employ those men in Catching some ffish, and doeing other things whereby they might defray the Charge, I should be at from that time on their accots. and that whenever, I receivd any orders from the Governmt they were ready in Case, I should have any Occasion for them, in the publick Service, and accordingly they proceeded on the ffishing &ca.[75]

I expected orders from the publick Dayly, but never receivd any, untill the 15th day of August, delivred me by Coll. Moody at Placentia, which was a Letter, dated Whitehall May 13th: from your honour, wherein you were pleasd to signify to me, that it was his Majtys gracious pleasure to Continue me in my Imployment, and to direct the payment of my Sallary, 20s p Diem, to Commence from the Date of my Commissn which I receivd from her late Majsty, July 21:st 1713 - together with the Sum of , 217:13s, which I had laid out in the hire of a small Vessell, and your honour was pleasd to forbid me, the Expence of a Vessell any Longer, but Directed me [236v] to return for England, this Season, to lay before his Majsty an Acct of matters Committed to my Charge, those orders Necessarily put a Stop to my further progress in the Survey, and pursuant to your honours Directions, I took my passage in Octobr last[76], and arrived at Poole, where I was detained some Time by Indisposition. came to Town, where I have had a Little Relapse, as soon as I recovred mett with an Accident, which befell me, of a blow on my head of which I am not as yet cured.[77]

I am very sorry, that I was not provided with such a Vessell, and the Accomodations for the Survey, as I desired from the late Ministry and board of Trade whom I was first Imploy'd in that Service, and which I again requested in my Memoriall from Placentia, if [I] had, in all Probability, I might have brought home with me, an Exact Chart from Cape Race, to Cape Les Anguiles, or the Isles of St. George, however I have done, in all the Time of my absence, as much as posible, Towards the Survey. carrying it to such a Length, and with such Exactness, in the Chart herewith delivred, as will I humbly hope, meet with your honours Approbation.[78]

That part of Newfoundland which I have Survey'd is very Dangerous, in many places as appears by my Chart.[79]

I presume the Winter Stormes have made me Sensible of most of the Dangerous Rocks, and Shoals, of that Coast, I cannot say all of them, for which reason Ships, goeing there ought to be very carefull, because there may be Dangerous places [237] which doe not discover themselves[80], but in Stormes and its probable I might Survey those places, when they were not Visible to me, not that I can learn from the ffrench, of any such Rocks, or Shoals wch I have not Mark'd in my Chart.

The last Year after I left St. Peters, Seventeen of the Inhabitants which had taken the Oath, according to the Treaty of peace, went to Cape Britton, carrying all their Moveable Effects with them, soe that their houses, Stages &ca have been Voyd ever since, they pretend that as they took the Oath, have the same Liberty, as any Subject of Brittain, whatsoever, that they will return back and Possess those plantats, when they please that none shall use their plantats, without they buy them, & if anyone makes use of them, shall pay severe Rent, for these Reasons, none of his Majstys Subjects, from Brittain, nor from the former English Settlements, are yett come into any of these places to ffish notwithstanding one boat at St. Peters, &ca have taken as much ffish, these Two last Seasons, as Three boats, at most of the former English Settlements, I have most of the Drafts by me, of the plantations belonging to those Men that are gone to Cape Britton.

Those Inhabitants which took the Oath and remained at St. Peters, have all their ffishermen, Apprentices, Clothing, ffishing Craft, and most of their provisss, brought to St. Peters from ffrance, in ffrench Ships, which Stop there in their way to Cape Britton.

In the Mo. of Septembr, came a Ship of St. Mallo [237v] from Cape Britton, loaded with Salt, Wine, Brandy Provisss Fishing Craft, and Cloathing, which was cheifly disposd of to the ffrench Inhabts who loaded aboard Said Ship bound for St. Malo a 1000 Quintals of ffish, I was Credibly Informed, that 8 saile of ffrench Biscayers, fished last Year about the Coast of Cape Ray. That in the Mo. of Septembr last came from Cape Britton a great many french ffishermen, to furr, and hunt, the Winter Season, some of them as farr to the Eastward as the Bay de Espere, which I have markt in my Chart, the Indians of Cape Britton, Freqtly hunt, and takes ffurrs on the coast of Cape Ray, it's accounted by the ffrench, to be the best part of Newfoundland, for hunting, and ffurring, I have been told by them, that they have seen a 1000 Deer in a Company, that the Martins there are the largest, and finest in the world.

I have annext hereunto for your hon s Informatn the Examinatn. of Captn. Duhaldy, Commander of a Ship from St. John de Luz[81] who pretended knew by Experience, what he had Inserted in the said Information, but I have been Inform'd by severall other Biscayers, which have fish'd along the Coast that it is far better, for fishing, Hunting, Furring than represented by Captn. Duhaldy, I have reason to beleive the same, because I had a great deal of dificulty to perswade Duhaldy to give me this informatn; and I observ'd that those other ffrench Biscayers, which I endeavourd to gett Informations from, Evaded it, by some pretence, or other, they told me, was afraid their Owners by some means would know it, which seem'd to be the cheif of their Objections. I was very diligent in Inquiring of them how this Coast [--. 238] lay because it would have been a great help to me, when I survey'd that part of Newfoundland.

Martin Herabure, Commander of a Ship from St. John de Luz, fishd in the Bay de Chaleur, in Nova Scotia, last Summer in the Month of Sept last, came from thence to St. Peters with his Loading of Fish, to Stop his Leaks, He and his Oficers Informd me, that in the Bays of Chaleur, and Gaspey, fishd last Summer 25 Saile of French Biscayers, and that all the Indians on that Coast brought their ffurrs, and Traded with them.[82]

The French endeavour to Conceal those places, about Cape Ray and the N.W. part of Newfoundland, as much as posible, and indeed they have reason, because they fish, furr, and hunt, as much there at this Time, as they did before the Treaty of peace, and its presumable they will Continue it, without proper Measures are taken to prevent it, what the advantage of those places would be to us, is at present Uncertain, because we do not know how plentyfull Codfish, Salmon, Furrs, etca. may be in those parts, but sure it is the ffrench Biscayers, have and doe make choice of their places, as well for Winter fishing as other fishing. In my Opinion, it's absolutely Necessary, that Bank Verte and the other banks lyeing about the Coasts of Chapeauxrouge[83], should be Survey'd, and the Soundings taken all over the coast severall of the ffrench inform'd me that Bank Verte was the finest bank, for Codfish in the world, and that a great many of their Ships loaded ffish Yearly upon it[84], they alsoe told [238v] me that the said Bank comes within 7 Leags of St. Peters, that 2 Leags. from Chapeauxrouge, was another bank wch was alsoe very good for Codfishing, that there were some other banks along the Coast very good for fishing, when these Banks ae Survey'd, and the Soundings on the Coast taken should the banks prove as good for fishing, as the ffrench give out, nothing could add more to the ffishery, in those parts of Newfoundland, because there would be no fear of making a bad Voyage, for if the fish did not come in, with the Shoar they could goe with boats, which they call Shalloways and ffish on the banks, which would Contribute very much to the good of the ffishery, both to Ships, and Inhabits.[85]

With Submissn to your honr, it is my humble Opinion, that to make those parts which I have Survey'd and those that are unknown to us, more Efectual for the good of his Majty's Subjects, to reside and Trade there is vizt

That those houses, Stages, and beeches formerly belonging to the ffrench, which now are Evacuated, by them may be given to any of his Majtys Subjects, who have or shall possess them, as well those belonging to ffrenchmen which took the Oath, according to the Treaty of peace and afterwards went to Cape Britton, as those that did not and that no ffrench Inhabitant, may bring his ffishermen and Apprentices from France, nor goods and ffishing Tacle in any foreign Bottom-

That a proper Vessell may be orderd, as soon as posible, to Survey the banks which lye Contigous to [--> 239] St. Peters &ca, takeing the Soundings, along the Coast, to Survey the Bay of St. Marys, and the coast from the Peneguin Islds to Cape Ray, from thence to the No. Cape of Newfoundld and to the South as farr as Cape Frills[86], the Commander carefully to Inform himself of the Codfishing, Salmon fishg, Furring, &ca. and to have an order, to seize all ffrench Ships or planters that fishes on that Coast, either Cod or Salmon in any part thereof, Contrary to Treaty of peace wth ffrance and alsoe to seize boats that shall fish Cod or Salmon Hunt or ffurr in any part of the said Coast by this Method. it will not be posible for the Subjects of ffrance to make those Incroachmts upon us, in those parts. we shall know what Advantages may be gaind to the Subjects of his Majty by ffishing, Furring, &ca on that Coast unknown to us, and alsoe what advantages may be made by Tradeing with the Indians.

A small Vessell will be suficient for this Service - provided provisss, and Necesarys, is allow'd without putting the publick to any more charge; All which is most humbly Submitted, to his Majtys Great, Wisdom and Judgement, by his

Most Dutyfull and most

Obedt Subject and Servant-

[240]

Captn. Dehalldys Information vizt-

From St. Peters to Bank Verte, the Course is WSW distant[87], to it's nearest part from St. Peters, 14 Leags. the Depth of Water on said Bank is from 21 to 30 fathom, the length of that said bank is about 25 Leagues, lyeing No. and So nearest, the breadth of it, is about 15 Leagues; which lyes Et. and Wt. on this bank are vast Quantitys of Cod, soe that the Ships which fish thereon generaly begin their fishing the 1st of May, continues it till the 1st of August. all which Time, they have very good fishing. The Month of August fish, is not soe very plenty, as in the foresaid Months but in the Mos of Septembr, October, November, and Decemb fish are very plenty. It's observd that fish are generally larger here, than upon any other bank.

From St. Peters to the South Cape Ray, the Course is NW by W Distant 42 Leags the Cape is high land, but at some Distance from the Cape towards the Et the land is much lower, which makes it often Times appear like an Island, There are abundance of Rocks, Islands, and broken Ground, from the Peneguin Islands to this Cape, soe that no Stranger ought to come nearer than Three Leagues of the Shoar, altho' there are severall good harbrs along the said Coast, as well for Ships, or boats.

The Distance between the No. and So Capes Ray is Seven Leags Course No and So[88] between which there's a large bay which runns not Deep into the Land, neither hath it any Dangerous Rocks, or Shoals - about the Middle, is a harbr called Les Petits Langwile[89], in which is beech for 16 or 20 boats, the biscayers generaly fish here, but their Ships ride under an Island, about two Leags. to the So ward of the North Cape, where they generally anchor close to the maine. If near the Island they must bring it Wt. of them. The harbour of Langwile is very good for Salmon fishing as well as for Cod, Aprill May and June are the Mos in which [240v] they make their Codd fish. There is very good woodes abundance of wild Geese and Deer the Savages of Cape Britton sometimes frequent this harbour but not often.[90]

The Course between the No. Cape and Isle of St. George is NEt & SW: distant 16 Leags deep Water no Shoals or Rocks between it is a large Bay called la Bay le Grand Languile[91] its 16 Leagues deep lyethe in ESEt Its high land but smooth on the Top there's no proper Harbours in it for Ships to Anchor by reason of the Deepness of the Water, it's from 60 to 100 fathm. In it are abundance of Whales some Ships from Bayonne have made Voyages on them but seldom Anchor'd. There are abundance of Deer and good woodes, but no Savages.[92]

The Isle of St. George is abt 3 Leags. round, lyes about a League from the Maine from the SoEt. point of the Island lyes a reef of sand soe that if a Ship intends to goe between must keep along close by the Maine but most Ships goe without it.[93]

Seaven Leags. No.Et. above the said Island is a Bay call'd La Bay Purporto runs in Et 7 Leags when you are round the So Wt Cape, about 1 1/2 Leags up the bay on the Larboard side, is a harbour where there is good Ground 14 ffathom Water[94] you may ride within a Cables length of the Shoar the Bay is about 3 Leags broad, One Island in the middle about Two Leags in from the Mouth[95] within it you may anchor all over the Bay, Codd and herring ffishing is very good here, begins the 1st of June continues Two months. Great plenty of Capling, Foxes and Otters good woodes the NEt side low Champaign Land. WNWt from the bay of Purporto about 8 Leags lyes a ledge of Rocks. A Ship cannot goe within them, they are about a League from the Maine. In the Surface of the water, you may goe within it with boats.

Eighteen Leagues from the Bay of Purporto is the Bay of Tres Isle [241] it's 9 Leags deep and 5 broad[96]. Three Islands at the Entrance which you must leave on the larboard side, it's deep water at the Entrance but 5 Leagues up on the Larbour side is a small harbour where you may anchor in 25 fathom Water[97], Two Ships generally fish here Codfish Herring and Mackrill are plenty begins the fishing the 15th of May and ends the last of July In this bay are abundance of Seales.

From the No side of the Bay of Tres Isle to the Cape of Port A-Choua is 27 Leags NEt Three Leags SW. of Port A Choua is a bay 5 leags broad Two deep with a great Island in the middle[98], you may anchor in 25 faths water High Land, At Cape Port A choua is a large white Rock by which you may easily Know the Cape.[99]

From said Cape is the Entry of Port A Choua where you must Anchor of the Barr in 30 fathom water and send your boat to sound it[100]. where at high water you will find 32 fathom on said Barr. it's a Shifting sand when you have found the Channell you must put a Buoy in it for Direction, in the harbr it's 5 fathom Water it's very good for Shipping In it may ride 100 Saile Generaly - fishes 4 Shipps there being beech for no more. One Planter a Candean[101] man is John Rogburd keeps 4 boats. he generaly makes Three to four hundred Quintls p boat. In the Mo of August great number of Savages comes here to Trade giving their Peltry, for Bread, Brandy, Needles, Thread, Shooes, Stockings, Shirts, Jacketts, Pipes Tobacco &ca the nature of the Commerce is to put the goods in a boat, either the Savages or the ffrench to Shove the boat from one to the other takes out that goods and puts in the Value and then shoves the boat to the other side again. These Savages comes over from the Maine in the Summer they are of the Nation of the Eskomaucks. no other Ships ffishes on the Coast, untill you come to Cape Dugratt. A great many Maloinns fishes on the Maine.



Endnotes

1. The Bay of "Chapeauxrouge" is what we today refer to as Placentia Bay. [Return to text]

2. "Point Verte" = Point Verde, on the south side of the entrance of Placentia Road.  [Return to text]

3. "Little" or "Petit" Placentia is today known as Argentia.  [Return to text]

4. Famish Gut is the former name of Fair Haven. [Return to text]

5. Long Harbour is in a narrow bay about halfway between Little Placentia and Famish Gut. [Return to text]

6. Neither deer nor moose are indigenous to Newfoundland; by "deer" Taverner means caribou. [Return to text]

7.The annual capelin "roll," when these small fish lay their roe or eggs on the sand and gravel beaches of Newfoundland, is still regarded today as the event that marks the beginning of the cod fishing season. [Return to text]

8. Robert Cuff identifies Little Sutte Harbour as today’s Little Southern Harbour; Robert Cuff, "Taverner's Second Survey: Introduction," Newfoundland Quarterly LXXXIX: 3(Spring/Summer 1995), pp. 10-18.  [Return to text]

9. Bull Arm; do not confuse with Bay Bulls south of St. John’s. By "the Late Warr" Taverner means the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713). However, the first to use this narrow isthmus effectively during a military campaign was Pierre Lemoyne d’Iberville in 1696/97; see the excellent account of the way d’Iberville used the Isthmus in Alan F. Williams, Father Baudoin's War: D'Iberville's Campaigns in Acadia and Newfoundland 1696, 1697 (St. John's: Department of Geography, 1987), pp. 81-5. The various place-names to which Taverner refers are all in Trinity Bay (Hearts Content, New Perlican, Scily Cove [Today, Winterton], Hans Harbour [Hant’s Harbour], Old Perlican, Trinity, Bonavista). With the exception of Trinity and Bonavista, all are on the east side of the bay. [Return to text]

10. North Harbour still exists by that name; it is the small bay immediately to the west of Come By Chance. [Return to text]

11. The only Bay L’Argent in Newfoundland today is on the northwestern coast of the Burin Peninsula. This is obviously not the "Bay Largent" Taverner visited. Robert Cuff suggests that the place Taverner visited was "probably Piper’s Hole & the Swift Current area"; Cuff, "Taverner's Second Survey," p. 11. [Return to text]

12. Winterhousing was a common practice among eighteenth-century Newfoundland inhabitants; they would live on the coast and fish from spring until autumn, then disperse inland to seek the shelter of the forest, supporting themselves by hunting and trapping. Father Baudoin, who accompanied d'Iberville's raiding party in 1696/97, reported that the region around Harbour Grace and Carbonear "is much better established and more populated than that from Renews to St. John's; but we did not find anything in their houses, all being hidden in the woods and islands of this bay before the snows, which means that we cannot discover their trails." See Williams, Father Baudoin's War, p. 65. For a thorough discussion of winter-housing, see Philip E.L. Smith, "Transhumant Europeans Overseas: The Newfoundland Case," Current Anthropology XXVIII, No. 2 (April 1987), pp. 241-250, as well as Philip E.E. Smith, "Winter-Houses and Winter Migrations," Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, Vol. V (St. John’s: Harry Cuff for the Joseph R. Smallwood Heritage Foundation, 1994), pp. 594-9  [Return to text]

13. Merasheen Harbour disappeared during the resettlement of the 1960s; it was a snug harbour located on the southwestern tip of Merasheen Island, the largest island in Placentia Bay.  [Return to text]

14. Cuff speculates that "Harbour Mullon" may have been Sandy Harbour or Clattice Harbour. This seems unlikely to me, as both are too far south to have been encountered on a voyage between the top of Placentia Bay and Merasheen. Glendon Cove or something in that vicinity would make more sense. [Return to text]

15. Long Island is the next island to Merasheen, both in size and proximity; it lies to the east of Merasheen Island. [Return to text]

16. Red Island, the third-largest of the cluster of islands at the top of Placentia Bay, is south of Long Island and southeast of Merasheen Island.  [Return to text]

17. "harbour of Prest" is probably Presque Harbour; "over against it, on the Maine" probably means "on the mainland, opposite to Merasheen Harbour." According to the Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, Vol. IV (St. John’s: Harry Cuff, for the Joseph R. Smallwood Heritage Foundation, 1993), p. 449, "Presque "was located on the west side of Placentia Bay, around Northwest Cove, which is an inlet of Presque Harbour. Presque Harbour is a well-protected inlet, approximately 10 km long , formed by two peninsulas and taking its name from the French presqu’île (peninsula)." [Return to text]

18. Cuff suggests that the island of "Prest" might have been Isle Valen; Cuff, "Taverner's Second Survey," p. 12. In truth, there are many place names in Taverner’s report which will never be confidently identified.  [Return to text]

19. Cuff believes that Cummins Harbour might be Great Paradise; Cuff, "Taverner's Second Survey," p. 12. I think from the description that it is more likely to have been Petite Forte. Taverner does not appear to have penetrated Paradise Sound (he surely would have commented on so long and narrow an arm of the sea). Fishermen, whether French or English, preferred locations that gave easy access to the fishing grounds. If Cummins Harbour is Petit Forte, then "Black Island" might have been Burnt Island. [Return to text]

20. Archibald Cumings (c. 1667-c. 1726) was a merchant, probably a Scot, who had appeared in St. John’s by 1698 and within ten years was appointed Customs Officer in Newfoundland in an attempt, ultimately unsuccessful, to curb illicit trade; Enclcylopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, Vol. I (St. John’s: Newfoundland Book Publishers, 1981), p. 573. The CO 194 papers include many reports and documents submitted by Cumings to the Board of Trade. He appears to have been an ally of Taverner’s, and was closely associated with James Campbell, the London merchant with whom Taverner was also connected. Like many English merchants in Newfoundland, he was drawn to Placentia by the economic potentials as that region was transferred from French control to British.   [Return to text]

21. Almost certainly Oderin Island, a tiny island just north of Jude Island. Why it would have been furnished with fortifications is not clear. [Return to text]

22. That is, in capelin season, usually June or early July. [Return to text]

23. The Basque port of San Sebastian on the coast of northern Spain. [Return to text]

24. Jude Island. [Return to text]

25. Red Harbour on the Burin Peninsula is due west of Jude Island.   [Return to text]

26. Just as a guess, possibly Davis Island and its immediate neighbours.   [Return to text]

27. As a guess, Havre de Loup might be Brookside, the name of which (until about 1935) was originally Bay de Lieu or Bay de L’Eau; a shift from "Loup" to "Lieu" or "L’Eau" is not inconceivable.  [Return to text]

28. i.e., which exposed or revealed the sunken rocks shown on the chart.  [Return to text]

29. Jean de Baie, as it is known today. [Return to text]

30. Beau Bois, on the coast of the Bruin Peninsula, south of Jean de Baie.  [Return to text]

31. Still called Rock Harbour today.  [Return to text]

32. That is, M. Laremberg, a resident of Bayonne who had taken the oath of allegiance. [Return to text]

33. Mortier Bay, in which is located what is now Marystown but was long known as Mortier.  [Return to text]

34. Little Mortier Bay is just south of Great Mortier Bay, and includes the communities of (Little) Mortier and Fox Cove. [Return to text]

35. Probably Port au Bras, as Cuff suggests; Cuff, "Taverner's Second Survey," p. 13.[Return to text]

36. Most likely Burin, since Little Burin Island lies beyond Great Burin, which Taverner had not yet reached. [Return to text]

37. Corbin, just north of Corbin Head. [Return to text]

38. Still known today as Little St. Lawrence.  [Return to text]

39. Now known simply as St. Lawrence.[Return to text]

40. Cuff also interprets this word as "landd"; Cuff, "Taverner's Second Survey," p. 13. This, however, makes no sense; why would you want to land a ship aground? Moreover, the word seems more correctly to read "lame" or even "lamé." Yet this, too, seems to have no meaning – unless Taverner is employing a French seafaring term. According to "A Translation of French Sea-Terms and Phrases" in Falconer’s Marine Dictionary, "lames de la mer" means waves or billows of the sea; a ship "lamé" might refer to a ship caught or moved by the swell of the sea, and "lamé aground" could mean a ship forced ashore or aground by a swell coming from a particular direction. Taverner may be warning that the harbour here might hold hidden dangers for ships, placing them at risk of being driven aground should the swell suddenly come from a particular direction. See William Falconer, An Universal Dictionary of the Marine: or, A Copious Explanation of the Technical Terms and Phrases Employed in the Construction, Equipment, Furniture, Machinery, Movements, and Military Operations of A Ship (new edition, London, 1780; reprinted Newton Abbot, UK: David & Charles, 1970), p. 377.  [Return to text]

41. The War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713).[Return to text]

42. Lawn, Great Lawn Harbour, and Little Lawn Harbour are all located on Lawn Bay on the southward-facing side of the Burin Peninsula near its farthest extremity. I agree with Cuff, that what Taverner identifies as "Great Laun" is the community that today we call Lawn; the reference to two rivers flowing into the harbour makes that clear. Cuff also identifies Chambre as Chambers Cove, an interpretation which I readily accept; Cuff, "Taverner's Second Survey," p. 13. [Return to text]

43. Lamaline is approximately 35 km west of St. Lawrence; its name may be a corruption of "la maligne," in reference to the many dangerous shoals and islets off the harbour. Taverner certainly had a low opinion of the harbour.   [Return to text]

44. Point Mayo, Beach Point, Grand Bank and Fortune in that order. Cuff identifies Beech as High Beach; Cuff, "Taverner's Second Survey," p. 14. This may be, but it would mean that Taverner did not identify the places he visited sequentially. I believe that he did in fact identify the places in the order in which he visited them. [Return to text]

45. This is Taverner’s most specific reference to his privateering activity in the region during the 1702-1713 war. He refers to it in [NAC Reel B-208] CO 194/5, 109. Taverner’s memorial to the Board of Trade, 31 March 1714, but here he makes clear some of the specific waters in which he had cruised.   [Return to text]

46. Robert Cuff attempts to identify a number of the place names at the top of Fortune Bay which are mentioned by Taverner in his second report; see Cuff, "Taverner's Second Survey," p. 14. In fact, for the most part, any such attempt is based on sheer guesswork, not the least because Taverner does not actually venture into Fortune Bay on this trip (nor did he the previous year, when he drew up his first report). Some place names, like Spout Cove and Dick Bay, have absolutely no modern equivalent in Fortune Bay; others like Bandalore and St. Jacques can confidently be assumed to be Belleorum and St. Jacques of today. But is Taverner’s Long Harbour the Long Harbour of today? Possibly, except that Taverner seems to describe the places in a counter-clockwise sequence, and he does not mention Long Harbour until after he mentions East Bay and Bay de Noor (probably North Bay), in which case Taverner’s Long Harbour should appear on the west side of Belle Bay, not east of it. Of course, there’s no guarantee that Taverner listed everything sequentially (see above, note #43).
    The more closely I look at Taverner’s Second Report, the more I question whether he ever ventured west of Fortune in 1715. This is in part because he stops recording dates when describing the places beyond Fortune; indeed, when he resumes giving dates, we are back at Fortune roughly the same time (late March) as when he "left" it to describe the places beyond Fortune. Moreover, his descriptions of the coast beyond Fortune is either based, by his own admission, on visits there in previous years or else are simply elaborations of places he visited in 1714 and included in his First Report. [Return to text]

47. Cuff identifies Sput Cove hesitantly as Rencontre East and East Bay as Fortune Bay Bottom - Terrenceville; Cuff, "Taverner's Second Survey," p. 14. Given Taverner’s inclination to identify places as he travels east-to-west (and therefore counter-clockwise around Fortune Bay), it seems likely that both places are somewhere in the vicinity of Fortune Bay Bottom, though precisely which of the places is impossible to say: Bay L’Argent? Harbour Mille? Crab’s Harbour cannot be identified at all; there is nothing by that name in the region.  [Return to text]

48. Possibly English Harbour East. [Return to text]

49. Almost certainly the community of Belleorum, with St. Jacques just to the south.  [Return to text]

50. Another reference to Taverner’s success as a privateer in the region during the 1702-1713 war. [Return to text]

51. There are several harbours and bays between Belleorum and Harbour Breton; any one of them could be Duck Bay.. [Return to text]

52. This is a good indication of the way in which fairly productive but very remote fishing stations had to be abandoned in wartime, as they could not be protected by the French against raids by privateers. War would have forced the French fishery to contract, concentrating itself where protection could be provided, such as St. Pierre and particularly Placentia.  [Return to text]

53. Connaigre Bay, which Taverner had mentioned the previous year but did not appear to have visited.  [Return to text]

54. Cape Negro (or sometimes Cape Nigro) would be Connaigre, also known as Great Harbour later in the eighteenth century.   [Return to text]

55. Cuff identifies this as Great Harbour. However, Great Harbour and Connaigre were the same place. It is therefore not clear where Grand Lance may have been.  [Return to text]

56. Isle Espere is most likely Pass Island.  [Return to text]

57. Taverner is now back in waters that he surveyed the previous year and described in his First Report; see The National Archives (PRO) CO 194/5, ff. 260-262, William Taverner to the Board of Trade (Placentia, 22 October 1714; Received 20 November 1714; read 28 February 1714/15).  [Return to text]

58. Long Island, separated from the Newfoundland mainland by Little Passage, and on the southern side of which is located the modern community of Gaultois. [Return to text]

59. I concur with Cuff, who writes that these bays are "all arms of what is now known as Bay d’Espoir. Bay de Espere, however, is the name Taverner applies to what is usually known as Hermitage Bay, while inner Bay d"Espoir is called Bay de North East.’ See Cuff, "Taverner's Second Survey," p. 15.  [Return to text]

60. But no mention of aboriginal people.  [Return to text]

61. Cuff suggests that Harbour Deep is the same as Great Jervais; the reference to sending fish to St. Pierre makes this a distinct possibility, but this is far from conclusive. [Return to text]

62. "Harbour Rancounter" = Rencontre West. [Return to text]

63. The Penguin Islands are several kilometres SSW of Cape La Hune. The "penguins" in this instance are Great Auks, a flightless bird that had become extinct by the end of the eighteenth century. [Return to text]

64. As in the previous year, Taverner does not appear to have pushed beyond Cape La Hune. Presumably this was as far as he had any familiarity with the coast, and was reluctant to venture into a region that was completely unknown to him. Here he suddenly doubles back to Miquelon in his report, though he had thoroughly surveyed and charted St. Pierre and Miquelon the previous year. The description he provides here of Miquelon is somewhat more detailed than in his first Report, but does not significantly add to what he had said before. [Return to text]

65. The freshwater pond to which he refers is known as the Grand Étang de Miquelon. It lies at the northern end of the island of Miquelon, just south of the modern village of Miquelon, and just to the west of the original location of village. The storm cut a breach in the beach separating the pond from the open sea, and created a tiny, nearly land-locked harbour which Taverner describes here. It is still open to the sea today. [Return to text]

66. There are two more ponds just down the shore to the east of the village of Miquelon, Étang du Chapeau and Étang du Mirande which are separated from the sea today by a barrier beach; possibly this was open to the sea back in 1715, and is the "Bay of Dun" to which Taverner is making reference. [Return to text]

67. Anglois = Langlade. [Return to text]

68. The "island" of Langlade is in fact today linked to the island of Miquelon by a long beach. It is higher and more rugged than St. Pierre and Miquelon, as Taverner points out. [Return to text]

69. I believe that what Taverner is saying is that St. Pierre would be an even greater asset to possess, were Green Bank to be charted and promoted for the fishery. [Return to text]

70. This has to be a mistake; he must mean the 19th of March, since the last date reference he gave in this Report was to the 15th of March when he arrived in Fortune. Moreover, he surely would not have arrived at Lameline "the next day" and tarried there until 26 March (more then two weeks); ie it makes more sense to assume that he reached Lameline on or about 20 or 21 March and tarried there until 26 March. [Return to text]

71. "Graving" is the act of cleaning a ship’s bottom when the ship is carefully grounded and beached by the receding tide. Ships’ hulls had to be cleaned periodically of the accumulation of barnacles and seaweed which slowed it down in its passage and interfered with good ship-handling. [Return to text]

72. This remark, in my view, confirms my interpretation, that Taverner had not yet travelled any farther west than Fortune and Grand Bank, and was fully intending to do so as he resumed his survey now that the spring ice breakup had released his ship, the Delore. [Return to text]

73. Taverner is careful to establish the point that the accident to the boat happened while he was not present. The weather had been too stormy for the Delore to get under way but presumably safe enough for a small boat to row close to the shore. Taverner had therefore elected to leave the ship to follow while he and some of the men went by boat to St. Pierre, surveying the coast as he went along. [Return to text]

74. That is, Taverner was reluctant to attempt rowing from the spot where the boat had suffered its accident to Little St. Lawrence, because it would mean rowing directly into the gale, which was blowing straight out of Little St. Lawrence harbour. [Return to text]

75. Taverner’s survey work comes therefore to an abrupt end. Not only had he lost all the equipment that was in the boat he had been using to travel along the coast on his survey work, but his supply ship had been lost in the gale as well, with nothing saved bu a small boat. Indeed, he was hard-pressed just to feed and shelter his men. [Return to text]

76. This would have been October 1715, so this Second Report must have been prepared and submitted in late 1715 or 1716, probably to the Secretary of State. The Board of Trade acquired this copy for study and deliberation in 1718. [Return to text]

77. Indisposition, relapse, a blow to the head; either Taverner is stalling or he is very, very unlucky in life. [Return to text]

78. Unfortunately, there is no chart included with the Second Report, nor is there any indication what might have happened to it. [Return to text]

79. And to judge by Taverner’s own misfortunes in 1715 while engaged in the survey [Return to text]

80. I.e., which do not reveal or expose themselves. [Return to text]

81. Saint-Jean-de-Luz, a port in the Basque region of southwestern France which was one of the most important participants in the French fishery in Newfoundland. [Return to text]

82. Laurier Turgeon has determined that, during the years following the establishment of peace in 1713, more than half (53.6 percent) of the ships and vessels from Saint-Jean-de-Luz made the west coast of Newfoundland their destination; see Laurier Turgeon, "La crise de l'armement morutier Basco-Bayonnais dans la premiPre moitié du XVIIIe siPcle," Bulletin du Société des Sciences Lettres & Arts de Bayonne, nouvelle série #139 (1983), pp. 75-91, esp. p. 83. Fishing stations at Pabos in the Bay de Chaleurs and Bonaventure and Gaspé on the Gaspé Peninsula were also important destinations. So intense was the French Basque presence in western Newfoundland that Turgeon refers to the region as their "fiefdom" ("le `fief’ dez Luziens"). [Return to text]

83. Chapeauxrouge = Placentia Bay. Taverner has shifted his attention from western Newfoundland to the fishery located on the great undersea banks to the south and southeast of Newfoundland. [Return to text]

84. Care must be taken not to assume that the "Bank Verte" which Taverner now proceeds to describe is the same as what we today identify as "Green Bank." As Taverner makes clear later, in his account of Capt. Duhalldy’s information, what he identifies as "Bank Verte" lies WSW of St. Pierre, not SSE as Green Bank does. He is presumably talking about the northern end of today’s St. Pierre Bank.
        Note too that without skipping a beat, Taverner has shifted his focus from one topic to another, entirely different one. One moment he is describing the French Basque fishery within the Gulf of St. Lawrence, including western Newfoundland; this was principally a dry fishery, that is, it produced fish that was brought ashore to be cured and dehydrated for southern European markets. The other fishery, on the Green Bank and the other fishing banks lying well offshore to the south and southeast of the Island of Newfoundland, produced green cod for the domestic market of Northern France. It did not engage the interest of French Basque fishermen but instead attracted fishermen from more northerly French ports, like Les Sables d’Olonne, the French Channel ports, and soon (for they only became seriously interested in the bank fishery in the eighteenth century) the fishermen of Saint Malo. Why Taverner should confuse the issue by describing two fisheries very different in location, technique, and participants is not clear. Adding to the confusion is the fact that, to that point, the English fishermen at Newfoundland had never bothered to develop a bank fishery. This, however, would change very shortly as the inshore fishery began to fail during the decade after 1715. [Return to text]

85. The development of an offshore bank fishery by the English, who to that point had practised only an inshore dry cod fishery, was easier said than done. Taverner exaggerates the degree to which a fishing ship could switch back and forth from one technique to the other according to the abundance or opportunity of the fishery. Each fishery has its own specialized techniques, gear, ships, etc. [Return to text]

86. Essentially, Taverner is recommending that a detailed cartographic and resource survey be conducted west and north of the area he had already covered. Thus, from the Penguin Islands west to Cape Race, up the western coast of Newfoundland and around the Northern Peninsula, then south all the way to Cape Freels. This would have included most of the region then defined by the Treaty of Utrecht as Treaty Shore, namely from Point Riche north and east to Cape Freels, but not Notre Dame Bay from Cape Freels to Cape Bonavista. Possibly Taverner felt that no formal survey of this region was needed because English fishermen were already beginning to penetrate Notre Dame Bay without any encouragement by government. [Return to text]

87. What today is known as Green Bank lies on a heading of SSE from St. Pierre; the heading Taverner describes leads to the northern end of what today is known as the St. Pierre Bank. [Return to text]

88. The "southern" Cape Ray is today’s Cape Ray; the "northern" Cape Ray is today’s Cape Anguille. [Return to text]

89. Probably the bay into which the Codroy River empties. The small island where the Biscayers liked to anchor would be Codroy Island, where French and later Irish fishermen established a permanent community from the mid-1720s into the mid-1750s. [Return to text]

90. The island of Codroy and the community of fishermen who settled there during the first half of the eighteenth century is described in detail in my article, "`Une petite Republique' in Southwestern Newfoundland: The Limits of Imperial Authority in a Remote Maritime Environment," in Research in Maritime History, Vol. 3: People of the Sea (St. John's, NF: International Maritime Economic History Association, 1992), ed. Lewis Fischer and Walter Minchinton, pp. 1-33.  [Return to text]

91. Taverner is describing Bay St. George. [Return to text]

92. Yet later in this century, Bay St. George would be where the Micmac would settle in western Newfoundland. [Return to text]

93. According to Selma Barkham, the Spanish Basques who frequented the west coast in the seventeenth century referred to Red Island off the western extremity of the Port au Port Peninsula as "Isla de San Jorge"; see Selma H. Barkham, The Basque Coast of Newfoundland (Plum Point, NF: Great Northern Peninsula Development Corporation, 1989), p. 12. However, Red Island does not lie a league offshore, and there is no sand reef posing a navigational hazard to ships rounding the southern end of Red Island. Since Taverner’s information is all hear-say, it may be that he is conflating Sandy Point in Bay St. George (an island that occasionally becomes a peninsula when the sandbar at its southern end builds up into a barrier beach) and Red Island. [Return to text]

94. If the "Isle of St. George" was Red Island, then Taverner’s description is consistent with Port au Port Bay. At the bottom of the bay is a long narrow peninsula dividing the bay into East Bay and West Bay. [Return to text]

95. Probably Fox Island. [Return to text]

96. The Bay of Islands; known consistently throughout the French period as the "Bay of Three Islands:..  [Return to text]

97. The small harbour recommended by Taverner cannot be positively identified, but may have been the natural harbour at the seaward end of Woods Island, which in the 1760s was known as "Harbour Island." Selma Barkham identifies this as "one of two fishing stations in the Bay of Islands described in the Basque sailing directions"; see Barkham, The Basque Coast, p. 13; also Olaf Janzen, "Showing the Flag: Hugh Palliser in Western Newfoundland, 1764," The Northern Mariner/Le Marin du Nord III: 3 (July 1993): 3-14. [Return to text]

98.Ingornachoix Bay  [Return to text]

99.  "Cape Port A choua" is Point Riche.  [Return to text]

100. That is, send a small boat on ahead with a sounding lead to measure the depth.  [Return to text]

101. Perhaps a spelling mistake by Taverner, and he meant "Canadian"?  [Return to text]